Illinois’ solution to an insurance company’s delay, deny and defend tactics is section 155 of the Illinois Insurance Code, which provides an extra-contractual remedy to policyholders whose insurer’s refusal to recognize liability and pay a claim under a policy is vexatious and unreasonable.1 Section 155 of the Code is intended to aid the insured and to discourage insurers from profiting by their superior financial positions while delaying in the payment of contractual obligations.2

The Appellate Court of Illinois in Charter Properties, Inc. v. Rockford Mutual Insurance Company,3 recently affirmed the trial court’s finding that the insurer’s delay in paying the insured’s claim supported an award of sanctions under section 155 of the Code.

Szechwan Garden was a tenant operating a restaurant within the building owned by Charter Properties. In August 2011, the building collapsed. Rockford stipulated that the policies of insurance covered the collapse, but the parties disagreed over the amount of the loss including the amount of lost rental income because Szechwan Gardens was closed for nearly 49 weeks. Five and a half years after the loss, a jury found that Rockford owed Charter Properties additional monies for lost rental income and building damage. A separate trial was held on Charter Properties’ claim for Section 155 (“bad faith”) relief.

While Rockford made two smaller payments within the first four months of the loss, it made no further payments until March 2012 when Charter Properties filed a complaint with the Illinois Department of Insurance. In June 2012, Rockford returned Charter Properties’ sworn statement in proof of loss. The basis for its rejection was twofold: first, it asserted that the proof was premature because the repairs had not been completed and directed plaintiff to give notice when the repairs were completed so it could conduct a final inspection and determine the costs incurred; and second, it alleged the proof was excessive. Following the rejection of the proof, Rockford’s adjuster admitted that he stopped working on the matter, without completing an inspection or estimate of the damages.

Ultimately, Rockford made its final payments in June 2013, which was seven months after suit was filed, 1 year and 10 months after the loss, and 11 months after Szechwan Garden reopened for business.

Charter Properties’ expert witness testified at trial that the adjuster’s job on behalf of Rockford was to prepare a damage estimate for the building and personal property, but that he failed to do so. Without a complete estimate, the defendant could not calculate its liability, which resulted in a breach of contract. In other words, the policy placed the burden of determining liability on Rockford, but Rockford improperly tried to shift that burden to plaintiff. Rockford presented no expert testimony to rebut Charter Properties’ expert. Instead, Rockford simply argued that the proof was excessive, and therefore a bona fide dispute existed.

The appellate court affirmed the trial court’s finding that the plaintiff encountered unnecessary difficulties from Rockford’s withholding of policy benefits. Specifically, the court pointed to the uncontroverted testimony from plaintiff’s expert who opined that Rockford should have completed the inspection and promptly adjusted the claims but did not do so. It also noted that section 919.50 of the Code required the insurer to either affirm or deny liability within a reasonable time and to offer payment within 30 days after affirmation of liability or offer a written explanation for the offer or denial. Rockford failed to offer a written explanation for the denial and failed to complete an investigation and determination of liability.

The appellate court agreed that Rockford’s long duration of negotiations, stalling tactics, and delayed payment supported the conclusion that Rockford’s conduct was unreasonable and vexatious. The court concluded that plaintiff’s expert opinion comported with common sense that an insurer owes a duty of good faith and fair dealing to provide an estimate, so the insured can proceed knowing the scope of coverage.
1 Cramer v. Insurance Exchange Agency, 174 Ill. 2d 513, 519 (Ill. 1996).
2 Myrda v. Coronet Ins. Co., 221 Ill. App. 3d 482, 491 (Ill. App. 2d Dist. 1991).
3 Charter Properties, Inc. v. Rockford Mut. Ins. Co., 2018 IL (2d) 170637 (Ill. App. Nov. 8, 2018).